RFID Literature Survey

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EPC Class 1 Generation 2 Specification

WISP References

Review Papers

Tag and Reader Design
Zhihua Wang; Xuguang Sun; Chun Zhang; Yongming Li, "Issues in Integrated Circuit Design for UHF RFID," Radio-Frequency Integration Technology, 2007. RFIT 007. IEEE International Workshop on , vol., no., pp.322-328, 9-11 Dec. 2007
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=4443981&isnumber=4443904

Review Paper of various RFID standards:
Glidden, R.; Bockorick, C.; Cooper, S.; Diorio, C.; Dressler, D.; Gutnik, V.; Hagen, C.; Hara, D.; Hass, T.; Humes, T.; Hyde, J.; Oliver, R.; Onen, O.; Pesavento, A.; Sundstrom, K.; Thomas, M., "Design of ultra-low-cost UHF RFID tags for supply chain applications," Communications Magazine, IEEE , vol.42, no.8, pp. 140-151, Aug. 2004

Tag Circuit Design

UHF / Microwave:

Passive UHF Tag with 9.25-m range, no sensors
Karthaus, U.; Fischer, M., "Fully integrated passive UHF RFID transponder IC with 16.7-μW minimum RF input power," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of , vol.38, no.10, pp. 1602-1608, Oct. 2003
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=1233745&isnumber=27645

Semi-passive UHF Tag, low power analog section
Pillai, V.; Heinrich, H.; Dieska, D.; Nikitin, P.V.; Martinez, R.; Rao, K.V.S., "An Ultra-Low-Power Long Range Battery/Passive RFID Tag for UHF and Microwave Bands With a Current Consumption of 700 nA at 1.5 V," Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on , vol.54, no.7, pp.1500-1512, July 2007

Passive UHF Tag with Temperature Sensor
Hongwei Shen; Lilan Li; Yumei Zhou, "Fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag with temperature sensor for environment monitoring," ASIC, 2007. ASICON '07. 7th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.360-363, 22-25 Oct. 2007

Passive Tag with Temperature Sensor
Zhou Shenghua; Wu Nanjian, "A novel ultra low power temperature sensor for UHF RFID tag chip," Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ASSCC '07. IEEE Asian , vol., no., pp.464-467, 12-14 Nov. 2007

Passive Tag with Temperature, Light sensors
Namjun, Cho, et al. "A 5.1-uW 0.3-mm2 UHF RFID Tag Chip Integrated With Sensors for Wireless Environmental Monitoring". IEEE European Solid State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), Sep. 2005, Grenoble, France.
http://ssl.kaist.ac.kr/bio/papers/conference/NJCHO_ESSCIRC2005.pdf (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1541614)

Passive Tag with ADC, no sensor
Kocer, F.; Flynn, M.P., "A new transponder architecture with on-chip ADC for long-range telemetry applications," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of , vol.41, no.5, pp. 1142-1148, May 2006

Man, A.S.W.; Zhang, E.S.; Chan, H.T.; Lau, V.K.N.; Tsui, C.Y.; Luong, H.C., "Design and Implementation of a Low-power Baseband-system for RFID Tag," Circuits and Systems, 2007. ISCAS 2007. IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.1585-1588, 27-30 May 2007
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=4252956&isnumber=4252535

4.3 m, at the 953-MHz
Nakamoto, H.; Yamazaki, D.; Yamamoto, T.; Kurata, H.; Yamada, S.; Mukaida, K.; Ninomiya, T.; Ohkawa, T.; Masui, S.; Gotoh, K., "A Passive UHF RF Identification CMOS Tag IC Using Ferroelectric RAM in 0.35-μm Technology," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of , vol.42, no.1, pp.101-110, Jan. 2007
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=4039597&isnumber=4039574

Nakamoto, H.; Yamazaki, D.; Yamamoto, T.; Kurata, H.; Yamada, S.; Mukaida, K.; Ninomiya, T.; Ohkawa, T.; Masui, S.; Gotoh, K., "A Passive UHF RFID Tag LSI with 36.6% Efficiency CMOS-Only Rectifier and Current-Mode Demodulator in 0.35/spl mu/m FeRAM Technology," Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2006. ISSCC 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. IEEE International , vol., no., pp.1201-1210, 6-9 Feb. 2006
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=1696166&isnumber=35738

EPC C1G2 Tag - Simulations only, few results presented.
Yang Hong; Chi Fat Chan; Jianping Guo; Yuen Sum Ng; Weiwei Shi; Ho, M.; Lai Kan Leung; Ka Nang Leung; Chiu Sing Choy; Kong Pang Pun, "Design and challenges of passive UHF RFID tag in 90nm CMOS technology," Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits, 2008. EDSSC 2008. IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1-4, 8-10 Dec. 2008

EPC C1G2 Passive or Semi-Passive Tag - few results given and figure suggests only FM0 possible.
Shiho Kim; Jung-Hyun Cho; Hyun-Sik Kim; Haksoo Kim; Hee-Bok Kang; Suk-Kyung Hong, "An EPC Gen 2 compatible passive/semi-active UHF RFID transponder with embedded FeRAM and temperature sensor," Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ASSCC '07. IEEE Asian , vol., no., pp.135-138, 12-14 Nov. 2007

Analog Front End:

Mostly rectifier analysis, but also covers Ring Osc, Regulator, Demodulator
Alessio Facen; Boni, A., "A CMOS Analog Frontend for a Passive UHF RFID Tag," Low Power Electronics and Design, 2006. ISLPED'06. Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.280-285, 4-6 Oct. 2006
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=4271850&isnumber=4271789

Low Frequency:

Low Range, Passive Tag with ADC, no sensor
Microchip Technology Inc. ”125 kHz Passive RFID Device with Sensor Input” August 25, 2005 < http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/devicedoc/21308F.pdf >

125khz passive sensor tag
D. G. Watters, P. Jayaweera, A. J. Bahr, and D. L. Huestis. Design and performance of wireless sensors for structural health monitoring. In D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, editors, AIP Conf. Proc. 615: Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, pages 969–976, May 2002.


Very in-depth UHF rectifier analysis
Jun Yi; Wing-Hung Ki; Chi-Ying Tsui, "Analysis and Design Strategy of UHF Micro-Power CMOS Rectifiers for Micro-Sensor and RFID Applications," Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on , vol.54, no.1, pp.153-166, Jan. 2007
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=4061033&isnumber=4061002
CORRECTIONS: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=4232603&isnumber=4232572

Fundamental physical relationships that link the operating bandwidth and range are related to technology dependent quantities like threshold voltage and parasitic capacitances. Our measured RF power-up threshold (in 0.18-mum, at 1 muW load) was 6 muWplusmn10%, closely matching the predicted value of 5.2 muW.
Mandal, S.; Sarpeshkar, R., "Low-Power CMOS Rectifier Design for RFID Applications," Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on , vol.54, no.6, pp.1177-1188, June 2007
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=4232586&isnumber=4232572

Passive rectifier circuits are designed in a 0.25 mum CMOS technology using floating gate transistors as rectifying diodes. Optimized for far field, the circuit operates at a distance of 44 m from a 4 W EIRP source
Le, T.; Mayaram, K.; Fiez, T., "Efficient Far-Field Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting for Passively Powered Sensor Networks," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of , vol.43, no.5, pp.1287-1302, May 2008
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=4494663&isnumber=4494641

Umeda, T.; Yoshida, H.; Sekine, S.; Fujita, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Otaka, S., "A 950 MHz rectifier circuit for sensor networks with 10 m-distance," Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2005. Digest of Technical Papers. ISSCC. 2005 IEEE International , vol., no., pp.256-597 Vol. 1, 10-10 Feb. 2005
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=1493966&isnumber=32118

S. Mandal, Far field RF power extraction circuits and systems, Masters Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, June 2004.

OSU Floating Gate Rectifier Thesis


Balachandran, G.K.; Barnett, R.E., "A 110 nA Voltage Regulator System With Dynamic Bandwidth Boosting for RFID Systems," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of , vol.41, no.9, pp.2019-2028, Sept. 2006
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=1683893&isnumber=35458

Voltage Detectors:

Reference Generators:

Falconi, C.; D'Amico, A.; Scotti, G.; Trifiletti, A.; , "Low Voltage CMOS Current and Voltage References without Resistors," Circuits and Systems, 2007. ISCAS 2007. IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.1907-1910, 27-30 May 2007
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4253036&isnumber=4252535

Dehghani, R.; Atarodi, S.M.; , "A new low voltage precision CMOS current reference with no external components," Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on , vol.50, no.12, pp. 928- 932, Dec. 2003
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1255676&isnumber=28091

Seunghwan Baek; Hyungtae Kim; Changhwee Choi; Seungkwon Lee; Kyeeon Chang; , "Large temperature coefficient PTAT current reference using weak inversion CMOS FET resistor," Circuits and Systems, 2007. MWSCAS 2007. 50th Midwest Symposium on , vol., no., pp.1301-1304, 5-8 Aug. 2007
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4488789&isnumber=4488527

Oscillators / Clock Generation

Impact of the Local Oscillator on Baseband Processing in RFID Transponder

Analyses and Design of Low Power Clock Generators for RFID TAGs

Ultra Low Power Oscillator for UHF RFID Transponder

A 0.8V 1.52MHz MSVC Relaxation Oscillator with Inverted Mirror Feedback Reference for UHF RFID


Digital Core

Ricci, A.; De Munari, I., "Enabling Pervasive Sensing with RFID: An Ultra Low-Power Digital Core for UHF Transponders," Circuits and Systems, 2007. ISCAS 2007. IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.1589-1592, 27-30 May 2007

RFID Tag on FPGA with Power Measures
Jones, A.K.; Hoare, R.R.; Dontharaju, S.R.; Tung, S.; Sprang, R.; Fazekas, J.; Cain, J.T.; Mickle, M.H., "An automated, reconfigurable, low-power RFID tag," Design Automation Conference, 2006 43rd ACM/IEEE , vol., no., pp.131-136, 0-0 0

Ricci, A.; Grisanti, M.; De Munari, I.; Ciapolini, P., "Design of a Low-Power Digital Core for Passive UHF RFID Transponder," Digital System Design: Architectures, Methods and Tools, 2006. DSD 2006. 9th EUROMICRO Conference on , vol., no., pp.561-568, 0-0 0
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=1690088&isnumber=35632

Antenna Papers


Intermec review of backscatter
Nikitin, P.V.; Rao, K.V.S., "Theory and measurement of backscattering from RFID tags," Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE , vol.48, no.6, pp.212-218, Dec. 2006

Tag Power Model

Derbek, V.; Steger, C.; Kajtazovic, S.; Preishuber-Pfluegl, J.; Pistauer, M., "Behavioral model of UHF RFID tag for system and application level simulation," Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Workshop, 2005. BMAS 2005. Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International , vol., no., pp. 60-63, 22-23 Sept. 2005

Active Tags

Active Tag with many sensors, no RFID compatibility, nice sensing scheme
Malinowski, M., Moskwa, M., Feldmeier, M., Laibowitz, M., and Paradiso, J. A. 2007. CargoNet: a low-cost micropower sensor node exploiting quasi-passive wakeup for adaptive asychronous monitoring of exceptional events. In Proceedings of the 5th international Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (Sydney, Australia, November 06 - 09, 2007). SenSys '07. ACM, New York, NY, 145-159.

Mote Reference
Polastre, J.; Szewczyk, R.; Culler, D., "Telos: enabling ultra-low power wireless research," Information Processing in Sensor Networks, 2005. IPSN 2005. Fourth International Symposium on , vol., no., pp. 364-369, 15 April 2005

UHF Active Tag + 123khz passive downlink
Savi Technology. Savi SensorTag ST-676. Datasheet, 11 June 2006. http://www.savi.com/products/SensorTag_676.pdf

Needs IEEE ref:
2.4 ghz semi-passive tag from Alien with RTC, accelerometer, temperature sensors

Needs IEEE ref:
2.4 ghz reader for semi-passive tags – not epc protocol
ISO 14443A or ISO 15693 protocols

Reader Design

A universal UHF RFID reader IC in 0.18-µm CMOS technology
PB Khannur, X Chen, DL Yan, D Shen, B … - IEEE J Solid-State …, 2008 - ime.a-star.edu.sg
This paper has a good literature review - see references for more reader designs.

Near Field UHF

P. V. Nikitin, K. V. S. Rao, and S. Lazar, An overview of near field UHF RFID, IEEE RFID 2007 conference, Grapevine, TX, March 2007

Antenna Design

Marrocco, G., "The art of UHF RFID antenna design: impedance-matching and size-reduction techniques," Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE , vol.50, no.1, pp.66-79, Feb. 2008

Rao, K.V.S.; Nikitin, P.V.; Lam, S.F., "Antenna design for UHF RFID tags: a review and a practical application," Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on , vol.53, no.12, pp. 3870-3876, Dec. 2005

P. V. Nikitin, S. Lam, and K. V. S. Rao, Low cost silver ink RFID tag antennas, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symposium, Washington, DC, July 2005

K. V. S. Rao, S. F. Lam, and P. V. Nikitin, Wideband Metal Mount UHF RFID Tag, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symposium, San Diego, CA, June, 2008

P. V. Nikitin and K. V. S. Rao, Antennas and Propagation in UHF RFID Systems, IEEE RFID 2008 conference, Las Vegas, NV, April 2008

Performance Evaluations


P. V. Nikitin, K. V. S. Rao, R. Martinez, and S. Lam, Sensitivity and impedance measurements of UHF RFID chips, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, to appear in 2009

P. V. Nikitin and K. V. S. Rao, Performance limitations of passive UHF RFID systems, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symposium, Albuquerque, NM, July 2006

P. V. Nikitin and K. V. S. Rao, Performance of RFID tags with multiple RF ports, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symposium, Honolulu, HI, June 2007

K. V. S. Rao, P. V. Nikitin and S. Lam, Antenna design for UHF RFID tags: a review and a practical application, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 3870-3876, December 2005 (IEEE Top 100 Articles List: December 2005 - November 2006)

P. V. Nikitin, K. V. S. Rao, and R. Martinez, Differential RCS of RFID tag, Electronics Letters, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 431-432, April 2007

Impinj Monza Transistor Count and Power Consumption as of 2005: 60k transistor and 8uW power

RFID Testing and Measurement

P. V. Nikitin and K. V. S. Rao, LabVIEW-based UHF RFID tag test and measurement system, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, to appear in 2009
to appear

P. V. Nikitin and K. V. S. Rao, Using National Instruments Software and Hardware to Develop and Test RFID Tags,
National Instruments Case Study, January 2008

P. V. Nikitin, K. V. S. Rao, S. Lam, V. Pillai, R. Martinez, and H. Heinrich, Power reflection coefficient analysis for complex impedances in RFID tag design, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 2721-2725, September 2005


Myung, J.; Wonjun Lee; Shih, T.K., "An Adaptive Memoryless Protocol for RFID Tag Collision Arbitration," Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on , vol.8, no.5, pp.1096-1101, Oct. 2006
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=1703522&isnumber=35947

Jae-Ryong Cha; Jae-Hyun Kim, "Dynamic framed slotted ALOHA algorithms using fast tag estimation method for RFID system," Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, 2006. CCNC 2006. 3rd IEEE , vol.2, no., pp. 768-772, 8-10 Jan. 2006
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=1593143&isnumber=33506


Roberti, Mark (2006-05-06). "A 5-Cent Breakthrough". RFID Journal. http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/2295/1/128/. Retrieved on 26 January 2007.

The last modification was made by - mehmanna mehmanna on Nov 9, 2010 11:31 am